Program Implementation

Program Implementation

Program Implementation
 
The steps in program implementation can often overlap with program planning steps, there is a blurred line between design and implementation. This section will go over essential steps taken to ensure that program implementation is a success, but some steps could be considered earlier in the planning stages as well. In addition,  this program implementation section will discuss many key issues and technical challenges that a majority of projects have encountered. The lessons learned from past projects have been integrated into these areas and the resulting advice is designed to help mitigate recurring challenges.

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The type of distribution approach chosen will have a large impact on the type of administration needed for the CFL program. It also influences financing and other implementation factors, therefore the parameters of the distribution approach must be created early on in the planning process and then enacted during implementation.

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  • Developing a Distribution Approach
  • Direct door-to-door delivery
  • Recycling collection method
    • Developing a Distribution Approach

       

      CFLs can be distributed in two ways. Either through direct delivery to consumers or by creating pick up locations for consumers. The two approaches require a wide-ranging amount of administrative support and different economic approaches. However, for all approaches, a detailed formal documentation process that records the CFL recipient information is necessary and is a requirement for CDM projects.  Both options will be explored in this step.

       

      Table of advantages and disadvantages
       

    • Direct door-to-door delivery

       

      CFLs can be delivered through a door-to-door campaign using a utility representative, non-governmental organization or an agent, such as a courier service. There are two important considerations for door-to-door distribution.

       

      Image of distribution approach

      Customer pickup

       

      This approach requires the customers to pick up the CFL at designated locations. Such locations may include utility offices or payment centers, or existing retail locations. Programs that involve customers picking up the CFLs typically require that the customers trade in a voucher (or coupon) or bring in a paid utility bill that shows the number of CFLs is they are eligible for under the program. The customer pickup programs may also require customers to turn in their ILs for recycling.

    • Recycling collection method

       

      The collection and recycling of ILs in a CFL replacement program is an essential component and must be addressed, especially if the program is seeking CDM registration. Depending on the distribution approach, ILs can be collected at the house, or participants can bring in ILs to exchange centers when picking up their new CFLs. However, tying provision of CFLs with collection of old ILs can be detrimental to penetration rates. One option to mitigate this is to offer small incentive payments for ILs brought to different locations, essentially separating the processes of obtaining new CFLs and returning ILs. In addition, incentives may need to be offered to retail locations, if they are being used to distribute CFLs, as the storing and testing of collected ILs can be challenging for some businesses. After they are collected, a recycling method must be chosen. Recycling is addressed in depth in the Technical Specifications section of the Knowledge Center

          A CFL bulb

         © World Bank

       

CFL programs can either choose to charge consumers or give away the CFL bulbs free of charge. There are serious differences in the administration and economics of these two options and it is important to consider all aspects before deciding.

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  • Defining a Financing Approach
  • Cost Recovery
  • Step 2.3
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    • Defining a Financing Approach

       

      After deciding on a distribution approach it is necessary to decide what type of financing approach will be selected. Financing approaches should align with the objectives of the program and compliment the current market conditions. There are two distinct options; one, to give away the CFL bulbs for free to customers, or two, implement a cost recovery program in which customers provide funding for the program in some way. Both options are discussed in this section.

       

      Free giveaway distribution

       

      CFLs are distributed free of charge to all participants. Giveaway programs ensure high penetration rates that lead to greater energy savings and emissions reductions. However, they are expensive, and can lead to “free riders”, participants that would have purchased CFLs but are instead getting them for free because the program exists. To learn more about free riders click here. In addition, giveaway programs can negatively affect existing retailers and are not sustainable in the long term market. It has been argued that free distribution of CFLs may lead to market distortions and create problems with customer repurchase when the CFLs need to be replaced at the end of their useful lives.

      Distribution of CFL bulbs

      © Ashok Sakar / World Bank

       

       

       
    • Cost Recovery

       

      Cost recovery programs are designed to cover some of the program costs through collection of payments from consumers. They require little or no grant funds, and can help support existing retailers. However, penetration rates won’t be as high in comparison, administrative costs may be higher, and the market may respond slower to change. Cost recovery can be done through several different types of financing.

      Image summarizing cost recovery options

      Click next to see a comparison chart of these distribution options.

    • Table evaluating options

       

       

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A well-designed marketing program is essential to CFL programs. Marketing programs are needed to raise customer awareness and encourage a market transformation.

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  • Marketing to Build Customer Awareness
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  • The World Bank Institute (WBI) support
  • Marketing to Build Customer Awareness
    • Marketing to Build Customer Awareness

       

      A successful marketing program can substantially improve the success of a well-planned CFL program by improving customer awareness of CFL technology, and ultimately may lead to the desired market transformation toward the use of CFL technology. A wide range of advertising channels may be used to promote awareness of CFL technology. Examples of marketing elements that can be deployed when building customer awareness of a CFL program are explored below.

      Options for marketing

         

      It is difficult to generalize which particular marketing and promotion approaches are most effective because these are highly influenced by customer and market characteristics. In the design of any new programs, careful attention needs to be devoted to developing effective communication and outreach efforts based on baseline survey information about use and population. Considerations should be made for diverse language, cultural and political sensitivities.

       

    • Across the globe citizens are demanding accountability and transparency from their governments. And access to information and technology through mobile phones and social media are multiplying opportunities for citizens to provide feedback—transforming the way we do development. This fast changing global environment is forcing the development community to adapt—to do development differently. It’s no longer only about finance. It’s about transparency in government, access to the latest global knowledge, and using innovative ways to solve development challenges.

    • The World Bank Institute (WBI) supports the World Bank’s operational work and its country clients in this rapidly changing landscape by forging new dynamic approaches to capacity development. WBI offers three areas of support to its developing-country clients:

    • The World Bank Institute (WBI) supports the World Bank’s operational work and its country clients in this rapidly changing landscape by forging new dynamic approaches to capacity development. WBI offers three areas of support to its developing-country clients:

    •  Marketing to Build Customer Awareness

       

      A man installing CFL bulb

      An excellent source for information on marketing and promotion campaigns for CFLs in the European Union is the EnERLIn study sponsored by the European Union. This study reviewed and documented the CFL awareness and promotion programs from a number of European countries, and provides many examples of marketing and promotion materials used in these programs.

       

      Visit the The European Union EnERLIn Project Marketing Example in the Knowledge Center to see detailed lessons learned.

         

       © World Bank

Monitoring and evaluation processes should be included in the design and implemenation of CFL programs. Without M&E plans, it is not possible to quantify the impact that a CFL program will have on the market.

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  • Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Monitoring and Evaluation
    • Monitoring and Evaluation

       

      An important element of program design is monitoring and evaluation. Programs sponsored by the World Bank, GEF, or other donor agencies require a formal evaluation, and an M&E plan needs to be included in program design for all CDM projects.  Program evaluations are facilitated by pre- and post- CFL installation surveys that will provide the information necessary for measuring direct impacts. Click next for more about M&E elements.

       

      People monitoring a project

                            © World Bank

    • There are three elements to all M&E activities.

       

      Elements of Monitoring Chart

       

      Although CFL program evaluation is generally focused on energy savings (MWh) and peak load (MW) reduction impacts, CDM projects impose additional requirements for the evaluation of related reductions in GHG emissions. To learn more about those requirements go to the CDM Methodologies website. To get detailed examples of post-program surveys and to read program evaluation reports go to the Templates section of the Knowledge Center.

       

       

       

       

Key Issues

Testing, Certification & Market Surveillance
Environmental Issues
Harmonic Distortion
Power Factor
Voltage Fluctuation
Health Issues
CFL Quality

CFL lamp quality is a continuing problem for CFL programs. Testing, certification and market surveillance is essential.

Using CFLs in place of ILs reduces the overall energy use and the environmental impact of lighting. However, there are some environmental concerns that do need to be considered when implementing a CFL program.

Although replacing ILs with CFLs will reduce the overall load of the electrical network, CFLs do provide a low harmonic interference.

There is a general misconception that the low power factor of CFLs actually increases their energy consumption, and associated emissions, because of system losses.

Voltage fluctuation refers to the presence of any distortion on the network, including electronic disturbance to other appliances. Such disturbances have led CFLs in some cases to have a shorter lifetime.

The campaign to phase out incandescent lamps has provoked large-scale cross-continent discussions on possible health-related issues related to CFLs or fluorescent lighting in general.

The performance of the newest generations of CFLs has markedly improved, however, poor quality CFLs have tainted the image of the lamp and continue to distort the market.